The PADI system allows patent holders to dive independently under the strict conditions of training, it is a mantra repeated during all training. The principle of all PADI is performing exercises “standards” to teach the student to do them without hesitation (principle of “second nature”) if necessary. The standard is repeated until it is done perfectly and without hesitation several times under different conditions.
In 1966 , Ralph D. Erickson and John Cronin founded the training organization PADI. Erickson became the first president. In 1971 , Cronin and Erickson decided to move the association in California in order to ensure better development. Erickson decides to stay in Chicago , leaving management to his friend Cronin.
PADI is primarily a commercial activity. Its affiliates, including dive centers, schools, instructors and divemasters , certify the majority of recreational divers in the world. It delivers nearly 946,000 licenses each year. PADI has sold the rights to companies operating under license, with offices in Australia , in Canada , in Switzerland , to Japan , in Sweden , the UK , in New Zealand and the United States . Its worldwide headquarters, PADI Worldwide, is located in California . At the professional level, there are about 100,000 members, 4,300 dive centers and in more than 175 countries. The translation of educational materials is available in over 20 languages. The PADI dominates the world market and is alone more than 50% of the market dive “leisure” (not scuba diving in general).
PADI markets a wide range of courses, ranging from those for beginners (such as Scuba Diver and Open Water Diver ) to Master Scuba Diver and numerous instructor certificates. The system consists of standardized modules, divided between a theoretical and practical. Theory is taught through videos, written materials, as well as a self-learning. It is validated by discussions with the instructor, as well as written tests. The practice is taught first in a “protected environment” (as a pool or in a shallow sea), then in a “natural environment”, which is closer to normal diving. After each course a certificate is issued, which will then be accepted in other PADI centers.
Not PADI certification programs (programs not qualifying)
PADI Discover Scuba Diving (baptism)
Kids PADI programs (diving for children)
PADI Seal Team
PADI Bubble Maker
PADI Recreational Diving Certifications (certification in recreational diving)
PADI Skin Diver ( Snorkeling or discovery of the medium from the surface)
PADI Junior Scuba Diver (young diver)
PADI Scuba Diver (Diver in a bottle)
PADI Junior Open Water Diver (young scuba diver)
PADI Open Water Diver (scuba diver to 18 meters )
PADI Adventure Diver certification (certification in various specialties)
PADI Advanced Open Water Diver (scuba diver advanced to 30 or 40 feet deep depending on the choice of his specialties)
PADI Rescue Diver (diving qualification relief)
PADI Master Scuba Diver (scuba diver confirmed in five different specialties)
PADI Speciality Courses (specialty training)
PADI offers an extended range of specialized courses, such as:
Altitude Diver (diving at altitude)
Boat Diver (diving from a boat)
Cavern Diver (cave diving)
Deep Diver (Deep Dive)
Dry Suit Diver (diving dry suits)
Night Diver (night dive)
Underwater Photographer (underwater photographer)
Wreck Diver (wreck diving)
Underwater Naturalist (dive Environmental)
Drift Diver (diving to drift)
Underwater Navigator (underwater navigation)
PADI National Geographic Diver
PADI Ice Diver (diving under the ice)
PADI Scuba Tanks Enriched Air Nitrox Diver (diving with enriched air NITROX commonly known)
PADI technical races (technical training)
PADI Discover Tec (Discovery technical diving)
PADI Tec 40 (Diving with nitrox up to 50% oxygen for decompression up to 40 meters )
PADI Tec 45 (decompression dives and breathing mixes up to 45 meters )
PADI Tec 50 (decompression dives to 50 meters )
Tech Trimix PADI (Diving Trimix)
PADI Professional Certifications (professional training)
PADI Divemaster (dive guide)
PADI Assistant Instructor (assistant instructor)
PADI Open Water Scuba Instructor (instructor)
PADI Specialty Instructor (Specialty Instructor)
PADI Master Scuba Diver Trainer
PADI IDC Staff Instructor
PADI Master Instructor
PADI Course Director
Criticism of PADI programs focused on the fact that the courses would be more expensive and less rigorous than those of other learning systems. Another criticism, popular in the UK , is that the approach would suggest that PADI dive into a warm, clear water is the pop up displays same as diving into cold water to poor visibility. We can nevertheless note that PADI promotes many specialization courses, especially for diving in difficult conditions (such as diving in high altitude lakes for example), as well as refresher courses.
PADI is a commercial, running on the system of pyramid selling (selling snowball), and generates a turnover impressive, the public is entitled to question the relevance of its standards. However, given the number of certification sold annually and the number of dives and PADI certified by the scarcity of the number of accidents it is clear that the PADI quality training is provided that the instructor meets the standards. This is (very American idea) the role of the customer to inform and to complain to if PADI training standards are not met.
Some sources (DAN doctors and insurers, for example but not only) tend to prove that the geographical distribution of diving accidents is in favor of systems like PADI (which is not only leading but to teach diving in this way) in the sense that accidents are less frequent in areas where these certifications are a majority. This is a case to follow because the final reports are being published.
Sells PADI courses. These are divided into multiple modules so that they can be sold – and promoted – in a separate business purpose.
In France the PADI system is especially critical because the dives are no decompression , they are considered less technical training and less complete. The controversy comes as the French lobbying FFESSM . Statistics from the Diver Alert Network (DAN) indicate that the huge increase in the number of divers who are primarily and especially internationally certified by PADI as the number of diving accidents do not follow the same upward curve and therefore the PADI system would be safer than what his critics accuse him. In this regard, it is important to note that DAN is also a business that has agreements with PADI, and most of the insured and a member from the PADI system. The association defends Angry Divers PADI divers in France deal with federal structures.
The buoyancy compensator, here rigged on a can of compressed air , is shown fully inflated and is still connected to the bottle: the right of the image we like the flexibility of direct system connected to the inflator hose.
A BCD or buoyancy compensator is a device that divers use to stabilize the water and not sink, ie for failing to palmer constantly to ensure their sustenance into deep water. Most often, in their jargon, divers call this device:
a vest , simply;
a stab (short for “BCD”);
an SMS (short for “inflatable stabilization system”, mainly used in the publications of the CMAS );
a VCF (short for “buoyancy compensation vest,” a term very rarely used).
2 Types of vest
3 Volume of air
4 Various particulars
4.2 Attaching the block
5 See also
The buoyancy compensator has two main function:
Adjusting the buoyancy of the diver during diving according to the particular depth and allow it to control its ascent to the surface;
the support (or) cylinder (s) diving set (s) in the back of the plunger. This feature is sometimes filled by a harness independent;
The BCD also provides other functions for the diver:
supports numerous accessories (Additional bottles, dispensers, lamps, decompression tables , parachute landing …); support equipment or déséquipement surface when slightly inflated (allowing to float all stab / bottle); Inflation of the vest is made with a live system – a pipe directly connected to the first stage regulator – operated by a push inflation. This hose is usually connected to an inflator mouthpiece also allows oral inflation but that is mainly used to purge the vest (reverse of inflation). The buoyancy compensator is also equipped with purges low and sometimes high, allowing an independent deflation and inflation system. Or the pocket (s) can be filled (s) of air are called “bladders”.
Types of life
There are several types of buoyancy compensator:
Fenzy (SMS brand, derived from the company of Eugene Fenzy), which have the appearance of a bib and are independent of the harness (a backpack). Buoyancy is distributed on the abdomen, which tends to adopt an oblique position (head higher than the waist);
Wraparound jacket: the volume of air is well distributed over the whole surface enveloped. It nevertheless has a slight disadvantage because inflation tends to compress the chest, making its port sometimes uncomfortable, especially for divers. Furthermore, it is absolutely not adjustable buoyancy is ventral;
Front Adjustable: so called because it has adjustable shoulder straps, it has the great advantage of not having a pocket of air passing over the shoulders and chest. It allows easier equipment and is much more modular. More recent models enveloping, it now tends to dominate the market for recreational diving. Buoyancy is located over the ribs and stomach. As the wraparound vests, inflation increases the tightness of the vest;
Buoyancy vest back. The bladder is located in the diver’s back, releasing the torso and making the clamping independent inflation. Moreover, these vests tend, under water to keep the diver from the horizontal;
Wing: literally “wing” in English. It is a subtype of dorsal vests, originally designed for the needs of technical divers . This is a modular system. Most of free green smoke coupon the equipment (bladder sling …) is interchangeable even between different brands. The emphasis is on safety and soundness. Recently, some specific models sidemount (dive where the bottles are laid against the sides) appeared;
Volume of air
The volume of air that can contain the vest varies depending on model size, etc.. It can range from 10 to over 40 liters . A bladder too large increases drag (resistance to advance). In addition, an inflated bladder causes a rise too fast (called ball, plug or rise in rocket), making it impossible to follow the decompression protocol. For these reasons, most courses recommend opting for the minimum volume sufficient one.
The inflator is the system composed of a corrugated tube and a purge command in order to inflate (or deflate) the vest. It is usually secured to the vest, attached, usually on the left shoulder (some in the left pocket) and connected to the regulator through a hose of said medium pressure .
Its importance is not negligible because the flow of the inflator will depend on the rate of inflation of the vest. There is also a system (called Air 2 by having designed the brand) combining inflator and 2 nd floor. Some models use a different inflator, which is in the form of a fixed housing, centralizing control purges in a button. Unlike conventional systems where the controls are more or less standardized, each brand has opted for a special ergonomics. Finally, control systems and electronic inflator purges appear 2.
Fixing the block
The fastening systems are quite varied and generally flexible to allow the fixing of blocks of different volumes (6 to 20 liters). It is often necessary to install a particular set of blocks called bi-cylinders composed of two paired cylinders.
The drains are devices for emptying his vest to slow the rise (or fall start diving). In addition to serving integrated inflator, you can meet others:
High purge: purge located on the shoulder (usually the right) operated by a control on the front of the vest; dump valve: located in the bottom edge to the left or right (sometimes one on each side) to empty his jacket during descent in duck (head down) or horizontally;
-stop window quick release valve located at the attachment of the inflator is actuated by a traction on the corrugated hose of this payday loans inflator.
These last three are used as pressure relief valve.
The presence, number and volume of the pockets are highly variable depending on the make, model and use the vest. These pockets can hold lamps, decompression tables , slate sealed parachute landing , etc..
It may even (on the front or the back of the vest) contain ballast : small blocks of lead shot or bags
This article does not cite any sources .
If you have books or articles or reference if you know of quality websites on the topic discussed here, thank you for giving complete article useful references to its verifiability and linking them to the section “Notes and references ” .
For items uses, see Diving (disambiguation) and diver .
A diver at the Playa del Carmen , in Mexico.
The diving is usually to stay under water, or using a hookah , or more often now equipping itself with a scuba generally composed of a specific combination , a mask , a snorkel , the fins , a ballast worn on a belt or integrated into the vest, a buoyancy compensator equipped with a direct system , and, in order to breathe under water, a scuba tank containing compressed air generally around 200 bars , the latter being brought to the plunger via a regulator . Measuring instruments are used to control the diving gauge and dive computer . If the computer uses a diver depth meter , an instrument for measuring time (possibly integrated with depth) and decompression tables. Recreational diving main purpose of organizing dives underwater explorations. The dive is planned in advance, it can also be simply an underwater walk a route 1.
Here is a Summary:
1 Techniques Diving
2 Impact of changes in pressure
2.2 Vertigo alternator baric
2.3 The toxicity of the gas
2.3.2 The inert gases
2.3.3 Carbon dioxide
2.4.1 Danger of flying
3.1.1 Diving Bell
3.1.2 Choice of breathing mixtures
3.2 Thermal Protection
3.5 Dive Computer
4.1 International regulations
4.2 The regional particularities
6 Preservation of the Marine Environment
7 Notes and references
8.2 External Links
In general it is possible to classify the various techniques of scuba diving depending on the technology used for diving. JASCAS.com This classification is fundamentally oriented more or less chronologically, by the advent of different technologies allowing men to evolve under water:
Scuba diving or snorkeling, practiced by snorkelers and underwater hunters (but not specifically)
Depending on the type of suit used:
Scuba diving helmet to
Scuba diving rigid
Diving scuba – also say that scuba diving is the most common
Depending on the type breathing circuit used:
Diving with hookah (open circuit)
Scuba diving or mixtures (open circuit)
Diving with a rebreather (closed)
This article focuses on scuba diving, which is largely the most common worldwide since already the years 1950-60.
The open circuit gas are those who are expelled to the outside at each end of the plunger (bubble production).
The closed cycle gas remain in the diver’s equipment and are “recycled” with each exhalation. The device eliminates some components of the exhaled gas, and introduced others to produce breathable gas again in the same supply circuit (little or no bubble production).
Effect of changes in pressure
Divers and basking shark in Irish Sea
The main factor affecting the human body is the underwater pressure exerted by the water. It increases with depth: while we are under a pressure of about 1 bar in the open air at sea level (atmospheric pressure), the weight of water above the submerged diver submits that This additional pressure to about 1 bar every 10 meters in sea water and about 0.98 bar every 10 meters in fresh water.
For example, at 25 meters depth, a diver is subjected to 3.5 bar total pressure ( 1 bar of atmospheric pressure and 2.5 bar of hydrostatic pressure), this unusual pressure for a human being adapted to the terrestrial environment will cause different phenomena, the diver should know and failing to manage their health (or life) in danger.
The air contained in the different cavities of the body (middle ear, sinus, respiratory …) has a volume vary inversely proportional to ambient pressure, according to Boyle’s law .
Accidents caused by abnormal variations in pressure in the hollow organs are called barotrauma . They affect the various cavities in contact with the inspired air: ears , sinuses , teeth , intestines , but also the space between the mask and the face and skin contact with an air bubble trapped by a combination (usually a dry suit ). During the descent, the air in the ear of the average diver is depressed relative to the ambient medium, creating a deformation of the eardrum . The diver must voluntarily blow air in his middle ear via the Eustachian tubes , to avoid tearing or pain. There are several balancing maneuvers , the most common is to hold your nose and mouth to blow slightly closed (process called Valsalva ). It can also balance its ear by making a ” voluntary tubal patency “which involves yawning mouth closed by advancing the lower jaw. The swallowing may achieve the same result. The inhaled air penetrates without trauma in the Eustachian tube to push the eardrum gaping against the water pressure and thus the balance. When ascending the opposite happens and goes into the middle ear pressure. In most cases, no balancing voluntary maneuver is necessary. However, to help balance the diver can use the Toynbee maneuver .
During ascent, the air in the lungs of the diver expands. If the diver is not careful and does not expire or not enough (for apnea involuntary panic, rapid ascent …), the pulmonary pressure thus created can cause serious injury. It is counterproductive and dangerous to use the method of Valsalva to the rise. This download free ringtones does not balance the pressure, it increases the pressure in the middle ear barotrauma can occur as well. Baric vertigo alternator
The alternator baric vertigo is due to a pressure difference carpet cleaning Kansas City between the two middle ears. The vestibular the brain is used to give information concerning the position in space. When there is a gas pressure on the wall of the vestibular apparatus, it changes the information. If there is a pressure difference between the two middle ears, the brain receives conflicting information that can not interpret.
The diver has a giddy, often passenger minutes 30 seconds, which can cause complications in a panic. He forfeits all spatial reference, and can not reorient themselves in water on visual cues.
The pressure difference between the two middle ears is often due to a Valsalva maneuver (injecting air from the throat into the Eustachian tube) performed poorly, and then a little eustachian tube permeable air.
In ascending, the footprint of one of the eustachian tubes get your ex back can lead to significant dizziness and disorientation while the serious descent was unimpeded. It should generally apply for assistance and then falling slightly to help rebalance the ears and dizziness to pass.
The toxicity of the gas
The third effect of the increase in pressure on the plunger to the impact of respired gases on the body.
For the pressures encountered tria laser hair removal reviews in diving, respired gases behave like ideal gases, and therefore obey the law of Dalton . It is thus possible to use the term “partial pressure” for a breathing gas. For example, given a diver breathing air (about 80% nitrogen, 20% oxygen) at 20 meters depth (a total pressure of 3 bars ), the partial pressure of inhaled nitrous is 2.4 bars (80% of 3 bars ), and that of oxygen is 0.6 bars (20% of 3 bars ). The physiological effect of a gas depends on its partial pressure, which itself depends on the absolute pressure (depth) on the one hand, and the proportion in the mixture gas breathed by the diver other part. Increasing the partial pressure (Pp) has different effects depending on the gas.
The oxygen (O 2 ), although essential to the survival of the diver, becomes toxic with increasing its partial pressure. This effect called hyperoxia is due to neurological toxicity of oxygen from a partial pressure of 1.6 bar . It subjects the diver at risk of seizure (indeed Paul Bert ) and thus loss of consciousness leading to drowning. On the other hand, prolonged exposure (several hours) at a partial pressure of O 2 over 0.6 bar can damage lung inflammatory type (effect Lorrain Smith ). But mixed with nitrous , for example, it is beyond 2 bars of partial pressure that the toxicity of oxygen is revealed.
The inert gases ( nitrous , but helium , hydrogen gas , argon , etc..), besides the function of the other mentioned in decompression sickness, have narcotic properties from a certain partial pressure. The narcotic power depends on the nature of the gas: argon and dinitrogen are narcotics, as well as the hydrogen to believe the Comex , the helium is much less. The nitrogen narcosis may begin as early as 3.2 bar partial pressure (or 30 meters deep breathing air), and becomes very dangerous beyond 5.6 bar partial pressure ( 60 meters ). Reflexes are reduced, the mind goes numb; faculties are impaired judgment of the diver, as to cause euphoria, anxiety and irrational behavior can lead to the accident (and we speak from the depths of intoxication). At greater depths, loss of consciousness occurs inevitably. Decreasing the partial pressure of anesthetic gas causes immediate disappearance of these symptoms, without other sequelae (narked a diver can avoid the symptoms simply by going back a few meters). Narcosis is a complex phenomenon that remains poorly understood depends on the gas, its molecular weight and solubility in liquids. It is also suspected the role of CO 2 . The consequences can be highly variable from one dive to another, and depend on factors such as promoting:
partial pressures of other gases: O 2 , CO 2 (according to some theories)
Depending on the depth to be achieved, using a “mixture” that contains the helium ( trimix , heliox , Heliair, …) reduces the effects of narcosis and decompression times. On the other hand, it also allows to dive to greater depths. It is also possible to use mixtures comprising dinitrogen dioxygen less than 80% of dinitrogen by adding oxygen , we talk about breathing mixes. These mixtures are called Nitrox (English contraction of nitrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, oxygen). Nitrox mixes up to 40% oxygen saturation can limit tissue dinitrogen during the dive and are used increasingly common in recreational diving instead of air. These mixtures are distinguished based on the percentage of oxygen used and the additional nitrogen: Nitrox from 40 to 40% O 2 and 60 N 2 . Given the problems of oxygen toxicity, the use of enriched air imposes a limitation on the dive depth: for example 32 Nitrox – maximum depth 33 m to 1.4 bar PPO 2 (normal value), maximum depth 40 m to 1.6 bar PPO 2 (maximum value recommended by the training organizations). The nitrox with 40% oxygen are generally used to accelerate tissue desaturation in inert gases during decompression even surface, mainly by professional divers or for technical dives.
Helium breathing in more than 10 to 15 bar partial pressure (beyond 120 m depth approximately according to the mixture used) present another form of toxicity: the high-pressure nervous syndrome (NHPS).
There are also poisoning carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) called “breath.” It can occur if ventilation is not sufficient, therefore, at a special effort (kicking strong, …) it is necessary to achieve long expirations to “hunt” the most CO 2 possible. On the other hand the phenomenon of breathlessness is largely aggravated by the depth, particularly related to worsening partial pressures. Shortness of breath often triggers deep narcosis associated with some loss of consciousness, because the increase in pulmonary ventilation caused by shortness of breath causes a dramatic increase in the amount of nitrous absorbed.
Increasing the ambient pressure causes the dissolved gas:
When a gas is in contact with liquid, it will dissolve gradually until it reaches a limit proportional to the pressure and dependent on the characteristics of gas and liquid in terms of solubility, according to Henry’s Law . If the pressure increases, more and more gas dissolves in the liquid. If the pressure gently decreases, gas flows back to the limit of the liquid or dissolved form microbubbles. If the pressure drops very quickly, the gas escapes explosively and forms bubbles within the liquid (such as the soda bottle at the time of the opening). The human body consists essentially of liquid, and is therefore subjected to the same phenomenon of absorption and return of gas. Only inert gases ( nitrous , helium , hydrogen gas , …), not metabolized by the body, are involved in this pathological mechanism. The behavior of oxygen and carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) obeys additional physiological mechanisms that cause these gases do not pose a problem in terms of dissolution.During immersion, inert gases diffuse into the diver’s body (blood and tissue) and gradually accumulate, and this especially as the depth and dive duration increases. During ascent, if the pressure drops too quickly – like the bottle of soda – bubbles pathogens will reach critical mass in the body. Depending on the location of their appearance, these bubbles can cause accidents including circulatory, paralysis, joint pains, which are grouped under the term of DCI. If the blood vessels at the bottom of the spinal cord are congested, there may be death by anoxia of it, so paraplegia. The brain is very sensitive. The challenge for the diver is to ascend slowly enough so that the bubbles formed are sufficiently small to be asymptomatic. These phenomena were modeled empirically to provide the diver decompression procedures depending on the dive. These procedures limit the ascent rate (between 6 and 18 meters per minute according to the procedures), and impose bearings (without wait times up). The decompression procedures are described either in the form of tables , is located in a dive computer , either in simulation software and have undergone validation statistics on populations of divers. These procedures are now reliable, and decompression sickness occur mainly due to non-compliance with procedures or use of a protocol outside its scope. However, to date, no one can offer satisfactory model to explain the free ipad 3 decompression of a diver. Research is currently on the development of “micro-bubbles” in the diver’s body, with interesting results and a shift towards more optimized decompression procedures, reducing the decompression time without degrading safety.
Danger from flying
It is dangerous to fly within hours after a dive to avoid a potential risk of decompression sickness. Indeed, decompression sickness occurs when micro-circulating bubbles reach a critical size. Decompression protocols are designed to be traceable to emerge and brushing this size. The interior of an airliner at altitude is being pressurized to about 0.8 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level (ie ~ 0.8 bar ), then there is a risk of seeing the differential epression (ambient – internal tissues) exceed the critical value, which could cause an accident. For the same reasons, it is not advisable to climb rapidly at altitude after a dive. It is strongly recommended to allow a delay of up to 24 hours.
diving suit ;
tuba , many dives do not require;
buoyancy compensator (or any other means a trip to the surface and stay there with compressed air), it can also set one or more scuba tank ;
regulators primary and backup, with a pressure gauge pipe with direct system ;
dive computer , or alternatively a way to control the dive parameters, such that the set of timing , depth and decompression tables );
parachute landing .
Underwater, the respiratory reflexes are altered: indeed, on the surface, the inspiration and expiration are automatic. Underwater, the work of breathing is more difficult because of the pressure increases and becomes voluntary. The complex mechanism that takes place within the cell is changed, the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) becomes more difficult to evacuate, the risk of slowing down becomes important.
Recycler (” Inspiration “)
Main article: Scuba .
Choice of breathing mixtures:
The bottles may contain divers of Heliair , the nitrox , the trimix , the hydrox , the heliox , the hydreliox , the air or oxygen pure, according to the type and level of diving diver. The air- gas mixture is the most used nowadays due to its free and the absence of specific ematériel necessary. The Nitrox is gaining ground because it reduces the phenomena of saturation and desaturation of those increases (see deleted reduced levels required). The maximum depth reached without danger is however reduced by oxygen enrichment, which makes it less flexible than the nitrox air. For low enrichment levels (less than 40% oxygen), nitrox is used with conventional equipment, safely in a NASA study 2 . For high levels of enrichment, there is also a risk of explosion if grease or inappropriate seals are used. Diving with Nitrox can be performed with a protocol designed for decompression dives with air, thus no no hair removal reviews increasing the levels required and therefore the margin of safety.
Heat exchange is more important in a liquid medium, the heat loss is relatively chiropractic seminars high during a lengthy stay in the water. The diver must therefore limit the heat exchange between body and water. It can be done using: of combinations leaky (also known as wetsuits), mostly in Neoprene . They can be mono or bipièce. Their thickness varies from 2 mm to 7 mm with the possibility of a double thickness in the case of combinations bipièce (thus 14 mm ); of combinations sealed or semi-sealed for lower temperatures.
The diver can lose up to 75% of body heat through your head in the absence of thermal protection.
So that heat loss is negligible it is necessary that the water is at a temperature above 32 ° C .
Indicates the presence of diver (s) under water
Used by NATO, it indicates that divers are practicing
The diver uses a buoyancy compensator (also called “Stab” to ” Stabilizing Jacket “) that can inflate and deflate at leisure to vary the volume and, according to the Archimedes principle , changing its buoyancy and balance and in water. The “Stab” from January to April has purges: the ” direct system “, which also serves to inflate it and that is usually connected at the left clavicle. Purges or the other are called “front dump.” The first is a “dump valve” is located in the back, bottom right, the second, optional, the “high drain” on the right shoulder, the third, optional, is also a “high drain”, it is integrated inflator, is called “fen-stop.” We use the purge which is high for reasons of efficiency
The “stab” can be inflated automatically with the ” live system “, which is connected to the block and allowing to inject gas from the bottle. It is also possible to inflate it by mouth, but it is generally not recommended: for hygiene (fungi can form inside, this place is rarely dry and disinfected) and because of the risk of slowing , of pulmonary barotrauma or ADD. In general, it does not swell in the mouth for two reasons: End of the dive, or if out of air before returning to the boat
To empty water from Stabs: Stab is inflated completely, they put it upside down and actuating the purge high while pressing the stab to empty. The Stab can be replaced by the BackPack, a simple plastic holder which is attached the bottle. It is just equipped with shoulder harnesses and a belt, so uncomfortable and rarely used. The stab is generally provided with the weight pocket is filled with bulk or lead bag to compensate for the positive buoyancy as a function of the selected combination and all the equipment. The diver can also use a weight belt on which you slip the different weights required for neutral buoyancy or attach seals on the bottle or bottles between her (when using a two-bottle).
Flag “Alpha”, http://www.insuranceforcriticalillness.co.uk/ indicating a vessel engaged in underwater operations, limited maneuverability
Moving underwater diving operation is provided by the legs. The diver, for the sake of performance and economy of effort, Team fins. The fins are simple two types:
Pockets: The palm has a liner that surrounds the foot, the diver can possibly put a neoprene sock for the first fight against the cold.
adjustable: The stand must be equipped with a bootie (sock with sole) before being placed in the palm, and then tightening the rule.
Several types of stroke are:
ventral: the most common, the swimmer placing horizontal, belly side down.
back: often used to sit while continuing to swim, surface essentially. The advantage of this type of stroke is to get its head above water easily.
side: swim to the side. Used when diving on falling (underwater cliffs, home to the most important and characteristic fauna).Under so-called drift dives, the course can be an engine: the diving teams are placed in the water at one point and picked up by the boat further. These dives are particularly interesting because a large distance can be traveled, and many things can be observed, all with a minimum expenditure of energy. Eventually, it is possible to perform drift dives from the beach, enjoying a reversal of flow to return. There are electric underwater scooters that allow effortless movement of the plunger, however, these can be locally prohibited.
Main article: Diving Computer .
Being in the form of wrist watches or consoles generally contiguous to gauge, dive computers are intended to replace the use of dive tables. They can generally always have the following information:
instant and maximum depth.
In this course may be added various options depending on the model:
management of different gases in the air: nitrox, trimix, heliox.
integrated pressure gauge, connected by radio transmitter to the bottle.
Using an algorithm, for each brand / model, and a function of depth, the computer will calculate the parameters of decompression of the plunger. This calculation allows to determine from the profile of what the diving depths and durations of possible levels. If the definition of a group of divers is “more divers with the same characteristics of time, depth and direction during a single dive, “in practice, it is possible that some members are lower for longer than others. Their profile will be different, as the decompression protocol. Moreover, the practical aspect of the computer is calculating the automatic increase repetitive dives or consecutive and to adapt the decompression calculation accordingly.
It also measures the speed of recovery following its own algorithm predetermined depth and indicates a rapid PADI ascent (through its display and beep).
Knowledge of constraints aquatic environment, training and strict compliance, are essential for this sport classified high risk. The individual is free to practice their personal capacity. Three systems of equivalent certifications exist: WRSTC ( IDEA , PADI , SDI, SSI …), the CMAS ( CMAS , AMCQ …) and CEDIP ( ANMP , ADIP , IDEA …). THE CMAS and CEDIP have a more athletic diving than WRSTC who sees it more as a hobby. They provide training and distribute recommendations for athletes, but their regulations do not act as law, it depends on the country.
Regional peculiarities – Belgium
In Belgium, the practice of sport or recreational diving was initiated by the FEBRAS , agency of the CMAS. Over time, other organizations have created or located in Belgium, and IDEA , PADI , ADIP and CEDIP and others underrepresented. Patents granted in Belgium are relatively severe by the harsh conditions of the dive the territory. Indeed, the time not always mild, the many lakes and quarries for the training venue where visibility is rarely more than a few meters, the temperature rarely exceeding 20 ° C in summer and close to 4 ° C in winter the familiar Belgian diver with difficult conditions . Most dive sites in Belgium are the responsibility of a club affiliated to one or other of the organizations mentioned above. The country does not lack careers but also lakes and dams, allowing diving year round. The Belgian diver goes too easily in the North Sea or from neighbors in North Zealand, where wildlife has earned him the nickname “northern Egypt.”
In France, in commercial or associative structures, the diving is regulated by the Code of Sport, successively amended by the decree of February 28, 2008 3 , which adds sections A.322-71 to A. 322-115 at the Sports Code , by Order 18 January 2010 4 on the home monitors not holding a recognized professional qualification in France and Order June 18, 2010 5 including changing reception conditions divers patent holders or title issued by organizations not recognized directly in the code of sport.
This text replaces the previous order of June 22, 1998 amended in 2000 6 – commonly called “arrested 98″ – and the Order of July 9, 2004 7 – “arrested mixture” – the text was almost entirely taken up by the decree of 2008 .
Part diving mixtures other than air has not been amended in July 2010 but should be brought into conformity with the rules for diving with a st April 2012.
This law regulates the diving (known as sports or recreation) of the peculiarities of this discipline that takes place in specific environment, with the exception of archaeological sites that are considered professional activities even if it participates as volunteer, and cave diving where the only point of regulation concerning the qualifications for the use of gas mixtures.
Vocationally oriented diving turn is regulated by a text of the Ministry of Labour (Order of May 15, 1992).
Originally modeled on the existing United States, or training from instructors most often framed by shops, training failed to teach instructors, shopkeepers and especially divers notions of individual responsibility. The result was an indiscriminate number of deaths while diving in the 1990s. Accordingly, the Quebec government has legislated to regulate the practice and especially the teaching diving in Quebec. The organization that manages the dive in Quebec is called FQAS (Quebec Federation of Underwater Activities). This organization issues certificates of qualification of the Government of Quebec in recreational scuba divers who have been trained in Quebec by a qualified instructor-proxy by FQAS to form the diver to dive in difficult conditions, low visibility, cold, high current, … However, tourists can dive in Quebec without diving cylinder restrictions (if they have been trained by a recognized training agency PADI, NAUI, SSI, BSAC and they obtain a temporary certificate issued by the FQAS). They must demonstrate experience diving with hood and mittens. All divers, whether Quebec or abroad are required to comply with regulations of the Government of Quebec.
Diving involves certain risks related to the effects of pressure (barotrauma, decompression sickness, accidents toxic) or wildlife underwater ( stonefish , fire coral, …). For these reasons, local regulations usually require obtaining a patent in order to practice. This is a patent obtained during a training in an educational organization of diving recognized by the legislature or a certificate recognized under the equity method.
Wall of sponges in Croatia
Coral reef Acropora sp. to Reunion Island:
From the earliest days of diving with the development of modern scuba , protection of the marine environment was considered. In France, Philippe Tailliez , “the father of French scuba diving,” marked the end of his life to protecting the environment. He is a founding member of the Scientific Committee of the National Park of Port-Cros created December 14, 1963. It is considered an inspiration for the environmental awareness of Jacques-Yves Cousteau . This created the Cousteau Society in 1974 “dedicated to protecting and improving the quality of life for present and future generations.”
Later, with the democratization of the Diving, diving organizations communicate on behavior to be observed not to degrade the environment. In 1989, Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) is developing the Project AWARE ( Aquatic World Awareness, Responsibility and Education ). The World Underwater Federation (CMAS) International Grand Prix of the marine environment (GPIEM). In February 2002, the International Charter for responsible diver is initiated by the association Longitude 181 Nature and is adopted by the French Federation of studies and underwater sports . At the regulatory level, this translates into the nature reserve where diving is prohibited. A diver must respect the world he explores. He shall in no case act as a predator and up living organisms. The spearfishing with scuba gear is prohibited in many countries (including France) and leisure tourism as snorkeling ( snorkeling ) are regulated.